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Process-oriented child monitoring (POM)

Observe to understand, act to improve.

Monitoring children's wellbeing and involvement in class and identifying children at risk of not learning, allows teachers to reflect on their teaching and to adapt their methods of instruction. Empirical evidence from Vietnam shows that this leads to significant increases in a wide range of child development domains, including cognitive, health behaviours, & socio-emotional development.

HundrED 2024






Target group
April 2024
Introducing POM in our school has led to many positive changes. The clearest change is that children have become more confident, and have better relationships with their classmates and teachers.

About the innovation

Why did you create this innovation?

Early Childhood Education (ECE) classrooms in Vietnam remain mostly teacher-centered and many find it difficult to meaningfully engage their learners or notice barriers to learning, such as the language barrier experienced by some emerging multilingual students. POM was created to provide teachers with a tool to analyse and mitigate those challenges and improve student outcomes.

What does your innovation look like in practice?

Process-Oriented Child Monitoring (POM) (Laevers et. al., 2012), is a formative assessment tool used by VVOB in professional development programs for ECE teachers in Vietnam. Using two 5-point scales, ECE teachers systematically observe and assess all learners 'Wellbeing' (WB) and 'Involvement' (INV), using a simple paper-based or app-based tool. Based on this assessment, teachers identify children's levels of WB and INV, reflect on their own teaching practice, and on what withholds children from learning and meaningful participation. Teachers reflect individually and as a team and are supported by their school leaders and education officials. Using 8 action points based on experiential learning, teachers facilitate changes in teaching to increase children's WB & INV. Evidence from 3 provinces in Vietnam shows that using POM leads to increases in a range of child development outcomes, including cognitive, health behaviour and socio-emotional development (Lenaerts, 2021).

How has it been spreading?

POM was developed at the Center for Experiential Education at Leuven University, Belgium, and has been used by VVOB in Vietnam since 2016. Following a successful pilot in 2016, POM was initially implemented at scale in 3 provinces of Vietnam as part of VVOB's 2017-2021 BaMi program, reaching 2,879 ECE teachers, 47,267 children. POM implementation in BaMi was expanded to 6 additional provinces of Vietnam, reaching 104 teachers, 3,120 children.
POM is now the starting point of VVOB's 5-year TALK program (2022-2026), targeting another 3 provinces of Vietnam, reaching another 2,184 teachers, 48,353 children. The TALK Programme is investigating how POM can be tailored in order to strengthen language and emergent literacy skills of ethnic minority children in Vietnam.

If I want to try it, what should I do?

As a simple, but highly effective formative assessment tool, POM is easily transferable to other contexts. While implementing, teachers need to be supported by school leadership and the education system on developing reflective practices and concrete action points for changes to classroom practice. You can contact Hans De Greve ( for more information.

Impact & scalability

Impact & Scalability

This innovation implemented by the VVOB team in Vietnam is extremely impactful for their strong partnership with state schools at the national level. Formative assessment is an important part of this model that adapts educational practices to the particular needs and interests of children, who become owners of their learning journeys.

HundrED Academy Reviews

This innovation allows teachers to quickly and constantly reflect on their teaching methods and approach and be aware of what's working and what needs to be improved. It helps improve learners' well-being and engagement and teachers' professionalism.

The simplicity of POM allows it to be scaled and transferred widely to different settings. It is low cost, involves low time commitment and gives teachers effective action points for improving student engagement, wellbeing and learning.

- Academy member
Academy review results
High Impact
Low Scalability
High Impact
High Scalability
Low Impact
Low Scalability
Low Impact
High Scalability
Read more about our selection process

Spread of the innovation

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