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Linking Pedagogy, Technology and Space Observational Metric
Linking Pedagogy, Technology and Space (LPTS) Real-Time Observational Metric
The LPTS observational metric can track and analyses the behaviour of both teachers and students in any classroom, anywhere and anytime without costly technology or software. It uses the Microsoft Excel platform to present a timed breakdown of activities, rather than a qualitative descriptive account of this behaviour.
Both the Learner’s Perspective Study (Clarke, Keitel, & Shimizu, 2006) and the International Society for Technology in Education Classroom Observational Tool (ICOT) (Bielefeldt, 2012) informed the design, function, and output of the LPTS metric. These earlier examples employed a more numerical approach to tracking the difference in activities and behaviours in specific situations.
The LPTS metric records, compiles and then produces a proportionate visual breakdown of the observed lesson. The use of timed activity reduces the potential influence of observer inference (Clarke et al., 2006). It enables a single observer to time the actions and behaviours associated with five domains: pedagogy; learning experiences; communities of learning; and student and teacher use of technology. For easy interpretation and comprehension, the design of the LPTS metric produces a single and/or paired observation visual breakdown in the form of bar graphs. Also, the complication of numerous observations for the same teacher and Faculty enabled efficient visual analysis.
During its development, the LPTS metric was piloted with three observers. Using the recommendations made by Bielefeldt (2012), the comparison of chi-square frequencies of the ratings of 9 teachers (not participants in this study) was made. The difference in recorded times from the three observers were not statistically significant (p > .05). This pilot testing suggested the LPTS metric had adequate interrater reliability, similar to that found by Bielefeldt with the original ICOT (Bielefeldt, 2012).